For a disease to develop, have significant effect on yield, and become a significant PEST there are four major factors that have to align:

  • Pathogen presence – influenced by field history
  • Environment – the right conditions for disease to develop
  • Susceptible host – a variety that is susceptible to disease
  • Time – regarding the growth stage of the plant and when the disease develops

Stand establishment issues due to seedling injury can be difficult to diagnose in the field, since symptoms can be caused by a variety of factors, particularly when wet weather follows planting. Scouting and proper disease identification is critical in order to initiate appropriate management practices.